星期日 , 十二月 4 2016
首頁 / 台灣 / 憂災後創傷症候群 兒童心理影響大
On 30 April, children play in a tent housing a UNICEF-supported child-friendly space in Tundikhel, a large grass-covered area and important landmark in Kathmanudu, the capital. A woman crouches nearby. A UNICEF counsellor was present at the space to talk with children about what they had endured. One of the tent’s tarpaulins bears the UNICEF logo. A temporary camp has been set up in Tundikhel for internally displaced people.

By 30 April 2015 in Nepal, search, rescue and relief operations continued in the aftermath of the massive 7.8-magnitude earthquake that hit the country on 25 April. The quake’s epicentre was 80 kilometres from Kathmandu, the capital. Over 5,500 people have been killed, and more than 11,100 others have been injured. Over 4.2 million people have been seriously affected, out of which an estimated 1.7 million – 40 per cent – are children below the age of 18 years. Residences, schools and vital infrastructure, including hospitals, have been severely damaged or destroyed, leaving thousands of children and families homeless, vulnerable to disease outbreaks and in urgent need of food, shelter, safe water and sanitation, and health support. Over 3 million people are estimated to be in need of food assistance, with 1.4 million needing priority assistance. Some 24,000 internally displaced people are being hosted in 13 camps in Kathmandu, the capital. Working with the Government and other partners, including fellow United Nations organizations, UNICEF is supporting water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), health, nutrition, child protection, education and other interventions. In response to the disaster, UNICEF has provided tents, including for hospitals; tarpaulin sheeting; emergency medical kits; vaccines and related supplies; zinc and oral rehydration salts to prevent diarrhoeal disease outbreaks; water purification tablets; hygiene kits and buckets; and temporary learning spaces. Working with partners, psychosocial services have been initiated i
On 30 April, children play in a tent housing a UNICEF-supported child-friendly space in Tundikhel, a large grass-covered area and important landmark in Kathmanudu, the capital. A woman crouches nearby. A UNICEF counsellor was present at the space to talk with children about what they had endured. One of the tent’s tarpaulins bears the UNICEF logo. A temporary camp has been set up in Tundikhel for internally displaced people. By 30 April 2015 in Nepal, search, rescue and relief operations continued in the aftermath of the massive 7.8-magnitude earthquake that hit the country on 25 April. The quake’s epicentre was 80 kilometres from Kathmandu, the capital. Over 5,500 people have been killed, and more than 11,100 others have been injured. Over 4.2 million people have been seriously affected, out of which an estimated 1.7 million – 40 per cent – are children below the age of 18 years. Residences, schools and vital infrastructure, including hospitals, have been severely damaged or destroyed, leaving thousands of children and families homeless, vulnerable to disease outbreaks and in urgent need of food, shelter, safe water and sanitation, and health support. Over 3 million people are estimated to be in need of food assistance, with 1.4 million needing priority assistance. Some 24,000 internally displaced people are being hosted in 13 camps in Kathmandu, the capital. Working with the Government and other partners, including fellow United Nations organizations, UNICEF is supporting water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), health, nutrition, child protection, education and other interventions. In response to the disaster, UNICEF has provided tents, including for hospitals; tarpaulin sheeting; emergency medical kits; vaccines and related supplies; zinc and oral rehydration salts to prevent diarrhoeal disease outbreaks; water purification tablets; hygiene kits and buckets; and temporary learning spaces. Working with partners, psychosocial services have been initiated i

憂災後創傷症候群 兒童心理影響大

圖片來源: 翻攝自網路

記者江呈亨/綜合報導

一般成人都難以承受的重大壓力,對孩子的影響更是巨大。從台南維冠大樓獲救的5歲和7歲大胡家小兄弟,獲救後在醫院裡顯得沉默,特別是7歲大的哥哥,幾乎不說話也沒也情緒反應。醫師已經正在進行心理輔導,主要是透過遊戲治療,念故事書、拼積木,引導他­們出走心理陰影。

台灣大學心理學系針對兒童遭逢地震後,心理重建做出建議:學前階段兒童會顯得特別敏感也極脆弱,他們無法有效的以口語能力來表達自身的需求,而身邊親近的大人,要能給予積極與適當的安慰。大人或教師可以提供足夠的玩具、道具,鼓勵他們以玩耍的方式,重建在災難中的經驗與觀察。災區的教師則可以就地取材,不需拘泥於真實的玩具,隨處可見的石頭、沙子、玩偶皆可以替代。

至於,學齡階段較年幼的兒童,雖已能表達他們的經驗與感受,但往往缺乏具體且完整陳述的能力,此外,若他們失去心愛的寵物或物品,他們難過的心情也需要相當重視與安撫。對低年級的學童來說,可以腦力激盪的方式,對學生進行教室內及家中的防災預防計畫演練,讓大家正面的來面對這次災難,協助其「宣洩」創傷情緒,使其在不斷的訴說中得到抒發,支持與陪伴是最佳的模式。

鼓勵孩子說出震災當時的經驗,如透過語言、繪畫、黏土、寫作、寫日記、角色扮演、閱讀自我成長的書籍及靠著宗教信仰撫慰心靈等方式,讓孩子表達他們內心的悲痛、傷心、悔恨,只有用耐心和愛心支持、陪伴孩子才能早日讓生活步上常軌。

衛福部也表示,罹難者家屬、震災事件目睹者或救災人員,在歷經創傷或事件之後如出現焦慮、害怕、無助感、失眠、焦躁不安、麻木、疏離等生理心理反應,可洽詢衛生局的社區心理衛生中心或醫院心身科(精神科),做進一步的心理需求評估,以避免造成急性壓力反應及創傷後壓力疾患。衛福部已請台南市政府衛生局啟動災難心理衛生應變機制,由心理衛生專業人員至各收容處所提供關懷及心理支持服務,並評估受災民眾之心理衛生需求,必要時轉介精神醫療服務。

受災民眾24小時免費心理諮詢及心理支持服務請洽 :

南區精神醫療網核心醫院(衛生福利部嘉南療養院) : 24小時安心關懷諮詢專線(0926-560-713)

衛福部 : 安心專線(0800-788-995)

不同年齡層的孩童對災難的反應與處置

 

項目

學齡前兒童

小學生

少年

身心反應

哭泣、吸吮手指、對內臟與膀胱缺乏控制、害怕獨處、害怕陌生人、焦躁不安、混亂、固執、活動量小。

頭痛、或其他身體不舒服的抱怨、憂鬱、擔心天氣、缺乏安全感、混亂、不能專心、表現差、打架、從同儕關係中退縮。

頭痛、或其他身體不舒服的抱怨、憂鬱、混亂、表現差、攻擊行為、退縮與孤立。

處置

畫圖、說故事、著色簿、閱讀災難與失落的書、娃娃、玩具的遊戲、團體遊戲、討論有關災難安全與自我保護。

畫圖、說故事、著色簿、閱讀災難與失落的書、玩有關災難的遊戲、比賽、學校讀書計畫、災難安全與自我、家庭保護。

故事、短文、閱讀災難與失落的書、玩有關災難的遊戲、比賽、自然、社會科學課程、災難安全與自我、家庭與社區的保護。

 

(資料來源:Farberow & Garen,1995)


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關於 江呈亨

江呈亨
非都市小孩 喜歡打抱不平 從小立志當記者 也想過從政 用文字紀錄觀點

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